THE PRAYER GROUP MOVEMENT
The Other FBI12 delved into how faith-based initiatives threaten the doctrine of separation of church and state—a democratic maxim that incorporates two legal (and political) principles, secular government and religious freedom—in both the United States and Puerto Rico. Thomas Jefferson’s referred to it in his renowned letter to the Danbury (Connecticut) Baptists.3 He believed the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution4 built a “wall of separation” between church and state. Section 3 of Article II of the Constitution of Puerto Rico5 leaves no doubt that this doctrine exists in Puerto Rico.
Worldly Power: Family6Style will be presented in two parts: One concerns the behind-the-scenes global prayer group movement and two covers the seemingly innocuous, but no less sordid, The National Prayer Breakfast and Its Offshoots. Apropos, the idea behind the prayer group movement emerged from hate7 for labor unions8 and communism.9 10 The two groups that typify this movement are prayer breakfasts and cells. They meet everywhere it is feasible.
In his best-selling book entitled The Family: The Secret Fundamentalism at the Heart of American Power (Harper Perennial (2009) Jeff Sharlet unravels the prayer group movement that Abraham [a/k/a Abram] Vereide founded11 to attempt to change the world. Therefore, a condensed story of how this Norwegian immigrant preacher evolved into one of—perhaps the strange outlier among—the great twentieth century evangelists is indispensable. “Abram… [became] an exponent of a religion for the elite—the ‘up and out,’ as he called them—for the rest of his life. He termed the trickle down faith the Idea… In the one sense, it was nothing more than the status quo. It neither challenged power nor asked for anything from the powerful but their good intentions. In another, it was the most ambitious theocratic project of the American century, ‘every Christian leader, every leader a Christian,’ and this ruling class of Christ—committed men bound in a fellowship of the anointed, the chosen, key men in a voluntary dictatorship of the divine.”12
Abraham Vereide (left) and President Eisenhower (middle )]
The Idea pervades the GOP (Grand Old Party) a/k/a the Republican Party. Initially it was tempered by moderate Republican politicians who genuinely believed in the doctrine of separation of church and state and practiced bipartisanship. This started to change when right-wing Republican Ronald Reagan pioneered the use of wedge issues13 and favored the rarefied elite (big economic interests and the wealthy). For example, he campaigned as anti-: big government1415, welfare state,1617 abortion18 and civil rights;19 and pro-: tax cuts (for the super-rich)20, death penalty, states’ rights21, unbridled militarism (our God-given right to win) and (total) war on drugs (“zero tolerance” [Ronald Reagan] and “just say no” [Nancy Reagan]) during his gubernatorial and/or presidential campaigns. Many were wedge issues that appealed not only to the GOP base, but also to enough conservative Democrats and independents for him to be elected Governor of California and President twice apiece. So much that has gone wrong in the United States and abroad—including the sub prime mortgage crisis and the meltdown of the financial sector—can be traced directly to Reaganomics. Reagan was an adherent of TDE [trickle-down economics], also referred to as Reaganomics and supply-side economics. His laissez-faire economic and tax-cut policies benefited the wealthy. Their bonanza never trickled down to the needy; these policies have been discredited by economists and at the polls. Neil MacBride, currently an Associate Attorney General under Secretary of Justice Eric Holder, aptly made the following analogy: “They [The Family] take the same approach to religion that Ronald Reagan took to economics… Reach the elite, and the blessings will trickle down to the underlings.”22
The “such is life” administration of Governor Fortuño—who became involved in his youth in this quintessential Republican’s campaign for President—is blatantly in sync with the Family’s elite fundamentalist worldview that works to unify right-wing politics and Dominionist23 religion through the prayer group movement. Recently, the Puerto Rico Daily Sun (September 30, 2009, p.4) reported: “Former Governor Aníbal Acevedo Vilá on Tuesday [September 29, 2009] labeled the Fortuño administration as ‘insensitive’… How one faces life’s challenges in great part is [sic] predetermined by … your vision of the world… He said the Fortuño administration’s vision of the world and government is Republican, which feels the government is a handicap and that salvation lies in the private sector… In Acevedo Vilá’s judgment, the biggest economic problem is not that the government is too big, but that the private sector is too small.” In 1985, Fortuño’s mentor [Reagan] responded, when asked to opine about the Family: “I wish I could say more about it… but it’s working precisely because it is private.”24
Initially Abram formed breakfast groups to pray about dubious subversion in Seattle. The IWW (Industrial Workers of the World)25 and the socialists were his principal antagonists. The Family was ostensibly nonpartisan; it claimed to be “open” to everyone in Finding the Better Way (1942). This leaflet depicted a “typical meeting”: It “consisted of prayers, ‘comments’, and personal testimonies by top executives from an array of regional and national corporations… Clearly, ‘typical’ meetings made for valuable campaign stops.”26 Many politicians, but especially Republicans like President George W. Bush and Governor Luis Fortuño, traditionally attend a host of prayer breakfasts that are typically held in tandem with fundraisers.27
Abram’s pamphlet asked capital and labor to build a foundation for mutual understanding. James Duncan, a reactionary officer of the International Association of Machinists, was the only union leader who attended Abram’s prayer group meetings in Seattle. He had opposed integrating Boeing’s workforce in spite of rank-and-file support. “Abram never himself made an explicitly racist remark…, but he practiced a paternalism that amounted to a quiet declaration of his views… Some of Abram’s closest allies [later in Washington, DC] would be Dixiecrats28 such as South Carolina’s Strom Thurmond...29 and Mississippi Senator John Stennis.”3031
God’s revelation to Abram was simple: “To the big man went strength, to the little man went need. Only the big man was capable of mending the world.” At the age of 49 he realized that he would forget about the needy and dedicate himself to the spiritual affairs of the wealthy. Ten years later Abram dubbed his vision ‘the new world order.’ By then, he had gotten his act together, dressed stylishly, and moved to Washington, D.C., He was not wealthy, but he ingratiated himself with the wealthy. God simply provided: Abram pushed his prayer group movement worldwide while heads of state (including despots), legislators, ambassadors, business executives, and generals acquiesced. In 1953 he maneuvered President Eisenhower into attending the first annual National Prayer Breakfast. Since then, no president has dared to dismiss it. “He never achieved his dream—the United States is no more a theocracy32 today than it was in Charles Finney’s33 lifetime [1792-1875]—but in his pursuit of it he stood at the vanguard of an elite fundamentalism34 that shaped the last half century of American and world politics in ways now only becoming visible.”35
Abram praised Hitler’s ‘youth work,’ in his Better Way pamphlet, but he considered Hitler’s military adventurism to be crude and ultimately ineffective; however, he never renounced his fascist/authoritarian political leanings36 because “just as a minority can ‘wreck a nation,’ a ‘righteous remnant’ chosen by God can redeem it.”37
In the aftermath of WW II, Abram visited Allied prisons in Germany looking for key men who were “ready to turn their allegiance from Hitler to Christ, and thus, in Abram’s thinking, America... Abram… initiated the trip, writing to Undersecretary of State Major John H. Hildring that the men of the Senate and the House prayer groups had insisted that Abram carry ‘the Idea’ to defeated Germany… Everywhere, he met with the ‘Christian forces of Germany’—those who saw Germany’s suffering as penance for its embrace of the totalitarianism of a man rather than that of God.”38 Abram recoiled from Hitler’s militaristic pomp and war, but he acquiesced to his philosophy of conformity, behind-the-scenes planning and insistence on obedience.
Abram epitomizes what Dietrich Bonhoeffer, a Christian clergyman who challenged Hitler publicly during WW II,—the Nazis hung him in 1945 just weeks before the Allies liberated the concentration camps—called “cheap grace/sacraments”, which criticized the hollowness of Christianity during Hitler’s implementation of “The Final Solution”. “Cheap grace means grace sold on the market like a cheapjack’s [a peddler’s] wares. The sacraments, the forgiveness of sin, and the consolation of religion are thrown away at cut-rate prices… And the essence of grace… is that the account has been paid in advance; and, because it has been paid, everything can be had for nothing… In such a Church the world finds a cheap covering for its sins; no contrition is required, still less any real desire to be delivered from sin… Cheap grace means the justification of sin… Grace alone does everything… and so everything can remain as it was before.”39
Since WW II American and Puerto Rican Christian fundamentalists have seen a “silver lining” even in the gloomiest events. They cherish their faith (read: tribal beliefs) and ready themselves with very little, if any, concern for the grave implications of the next impending disaster, for example, terrorism, war (conventional or nuclear) or a general strike. When something dreadful happens, they readily blame: the communists, feminists, Jews, Arabs, gays, immigrants, unions or whomever currently is their pet hate-object.
J. Edgar Hoover40, the first FBI [Federal Bureau of Investigations] director, “declare[d] that communist stealth operatives, ‘schooled in atheistic perversity,’ had made Christian pulpits a main objective—and tool—of their propaganda. A ‘deadly radioactive cloud of Marxism-Leninism,’ he preached, was flogging America’s liberal houses of worship…” 41 He kept more than a hundred thousand dossiers on people and organizations that he suspected were subversive including, for example, the IWW [supra note , Martin Luther King’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference, ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union), NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Eleanor Roosevelt, Playboy and the Puerto Rico Independence Movement. Abram admired Hoover; they were ideological soul mates. After World War II, fringe concepts like secretive prayer cells and domestic spying went mainstream in America and Puerto Rico. “In the 1950’s, the soldiers of Christ didn’t wear armor; they wore cufflinks.” Abram, Billy Graham42 and Kenneth M. Crosby were photographed together at a Family convention. Crosby was the Family’s “man in Havana… [who had] been a spy throughout Latin America during the war. Officially he retired at its end, he took over Merrill Lynch’s Cuban operation in 1946 and stayed until 1959, when Fidel Castro drove out the dictator Fulgencio Batista, reporting all the while back to U.S. intelligence, a happy double posting which also allowed him time to set up prayer cells for Abram. His ‘Havana Group’ consisted of American embassy personnel, representatives from American banks and the United Fruit Company. Cuban cartels boasted openly in the Havana Post of the prayer cell’s use as a lobbying tool… It was Crosby, briefing CIA director Allen Dulles, who laid the first bricks in the Cold War construction of the island nation as one of America’s greatest enemies.”43 44
Jeff Sharlet freely examined Collection 459, the Fellowship Foundation records,45 at the Billy Graham Center Archives in Wheaton, Illinois, but today these records are no longer available to the public. Only “those users with the written permission of the President of the Fellowship Foundation” can view them.46 Sealed at the present time to everyone including their members! What is the Family trying to hide? The Archives implemented this restriction “[in] November of 2003, after consultation with the board of the Fellowship Foundation…”47 Jeff Sharlet’s article “Jesus plus nothing: Undercover among America’s secret theocrats” was published in Harper’s Magazine in the March 2003 edition;48 therefore, it is evident that the Family’s board of directors’ restriction was vindicatory rather than coincidental. Everyone should thank Mr. Sharlet for having the guts to investigate the Family and breaking the story about their more often than not hurtful behind-the-scenes maneuvers.
What should progressive and moderate citizens learn from this exposé? Hopefully, Worldly Power: Family Style will encourage Papel Mag’s readers to be more cognizant of the dangers of mixing church and state. Voters cannot trust people of the Family’s ilk! These neoconservatives, sometimes referred to pejoratively as crony capitalists, businessmen whose success depends on favoritism from government officials that far too often devolves into corruption, join prayer cells and attend prayer breakfasts for the elite. They also lead weekend worldview conferences49 and right-wing mass rallies50—political, religious and, more often than not, cri de coeur conflations of the two—to adroitly preach hate and fear (speaking-in-code); to appeal to poor and middle class wage earners’ prejudice (by stereotyping) and loyalty (through chauvinistic sloganeering); to indoctrinate them into a simplistic, divisive credendum of life that fuses church and state, pretends to cover every aspect of creation (a/k/a “intelligent design”)—Yes, Jesus plus nothing; scholarship and science including evolution are scrapped;—and to misinform the gullible masses in order to garner support for compromised right-wing political candidates who, once elected (or re-elected) to public office, support disadvantageous, elitist economic and social policies that widen the economic gap between the poor and the super-rich. Too many of these politicians that are members of the Family sell their votes to special interests in exchange for campaign contributions or “sweetheart” deals.
A few skeptics have privately suggested that I may read too much; my reply: Is that possible? Governor Fortuño, who dawdles with Rev. Raschke and collaborates with Rev. Heredia, “and his Labor Secretary have said that there are 6,000 jobs available [16,970 layoffs of public workers were announced recently to reduce the government deficit] through the Puerto Rico Works Program of the Occupational Development and Human Resources Council. Are they lying? [“Labor Department documents put the number of jobs at 122…”]51 The following adage that has been attributed to Abraham Lincoln is germane: “If you once forfeit the confidence of your fellow citizens, you can never regain their respect and esteem. It is true that you may fool all of the people some of the time; you can even fool some of the people all of the time; but you can't fool all of the people all of the time.”
Perhaps, Worldly Power: Family Style will also animate the readers of Papel Mag to become independent voters, analyze party platforms52 and evaluate candidates before voting in 2012. On March 1, 2008 the now defunct San Juan Star (the “Star”) featured The rise of the independent voter in Viewpoint. At that time Luis Fortuño was campaigning to win the PNP primary. I said: “Resident Commissioner Luis Fortuño isn’t much better [comparing him to another candidate, former Gov. Pedro Rosselló]. He has spent three years being a yes-man who indiscriminately promotes George W. Bush’s nefarious policies in Washington. Albeit he distances himself from Barack Obama’s proposals, Fortuño hopes to piggyback on the Democratic candidate’s populist message for change. We all know he is a fence sitting, diehard Republican that has sold himself out to the elite and big business interests in spite of his middle class Hispanic roots. Today, while emphasizing his “experience,” former President George Bush pledged “full support” for his bid to become the island’s next governor (Star, Feb. 28th). President George W. Bush’s tax cuts mostly benefited the very wealthiest in the United States, and independents have scant expectation that, if elected, Fortuño will bring prosperity to the working and middle class in Puerto Rico.”
My definitive evaluation of gubernatorial candidate Fortuño, Finding the vote, appeared in the March 20, 2008 edition of the Star (p. 36): “Few independents want Resident Commissioner Luis Fortuño to be our next governor. He easily won the NPP [New Progressive Party] primary, but back-stepped on “change” by immediately surrounding himself with Rosselló’s has-been cohorts. He is a die-hard Republican who indiscriminately backed President Bush’s nefarious policies in Washington. Everyone expects the Democrats to win the next presidential election. Fortuño’s populist message for “change” is a hoax. It will stop resonating with the new generation (18 to 30 years old) as soon as they realize he is as old hat as Rosselló and Bush. Many who voted for Fortuño in the primary jumped off the bus when the rossellistas boarded. They will either turn to Rogelio Figueroa (Puerto Ricans for Puerto Rico), back the Puerto Rican Independence Party or vote for broad-minded PDP [Popular Democratic Party] and NPP candidates.” I read Fortuño accurately, but he was able to deceive almost everyone including the new generation of voters. I miscalculated. Ironically, most of his supporters seem to agree with me today. The Broad Front for Solidarity and Struggle have joined activists, professional associations, community groups and even a few religious denominations to convoke a general strike for October 15th for the purpose of protesting the Law 7 layoffs [approximately 17,000 public workers to date]. It portends to be so massive that Fortuño’s electoral mandate will be considered to be rescinded. He will no longer be able to credibly use this mandate as a justification to layoff additional government employees to pay the public debt. There are other alternatives, for example, tax hikes for the super-rich and collecting billions of dollars in delinquent taxes.
The leaders of All Puerto Rico for Puerto Rico Coalition announced that their protestors participating in the general strike will meet on Roosevelt Avenue in front of Plaza Las Americas. They hope the general strike will force the Fortuño administration to restitute the dismissed public employees’ jobs and derail its plans to privatize government services and layoff even more public workers.53 The Broad Front for Solidarity and Struggle’s spokesman Luis Pedraza Leduc said: “The government has demonstrated it does not want to inform the public and continues to keep its economic plan under wraps… It talks with banks and bondholders, but not with the people.” He claimed the medium- and long-range plans for tax, labor and energy reforms, which Gov. Fortuño discussed with handpicked local economists54 last week, confirm the administration favors big economic interests. People now realize they were duped by a governor who campaigned pledging he would not fire anyone. Pedraza Leduc said that even NPP voters feel they have been had.55 The Broad Front for Solidarity and Struggle’s protestors will congregate behind Plaza Las Americas near K-Mart, Office Max and Toys R Us. Their protest (that is separate from All Puerto Rico for Puerto Rico Coalition’s) will attempt to paralyze economic activity at the shopping center and adjacent businesses.56
NPP Sen. Melinda Romero blasted the Fortuño administration for laying off 16, 970 public workers. She opined the governor has set back the advance for statehood for Puerto Rico. She remarked that Fortuño’s decision was made in ‘dark rooms’ and that many of the 11,000 workers that Acevedo Vila’s administration hired illegally still have jobs. During a radio show, Romero said she was going to oppose any more layoffs. The Fortuño administration has plans to consolidate or eliminate 40 governmental agencies.57 Will the Fortuño administration; its Republican big business base that includes the Chamber of Commerce, a bastion of pro-corporate politics with close Family connections, for example, former Senator Rick Santorum (R-PA); and its religious fundamentalist supporters break these unions? Hopefully history will not be repeated, but perhaps!
The San Francisco Dockers Union, once one of the toughest in the country, had been broken in 1919. They were forced into the “Blue Book” a/k/a Longshoremen's Association of San Francisco, a company owned enterprise. The CEO served as the union boss; for all practical purposes he negotiated with himself. “The bosses thought they were being kind. So did Abram. To him, such arrangements seemed like the ‘reconciliation’ promised by Christianity, the solution at last to the old problem of labor and capital. The laws of property obtained—was it not the company’s right to hire and fire at will?—but were softened, in the minds of the Blue Book believers, by the company’s voluntary decision to treat its employees not as hostile contractors but as children. That made sense to Abram, who divided the world between big [key/God’s chosen] men and little [poor/God’s forsaken] men [wage earners] and preferred the company of the former.”58 The similarity is unmistakable: Fortuño’s FBI’s [Faith-based initiatives], PPA’s [Public Private Alliances] and plans to reform (read: downsize) government are up-dated versions of the “Blue Book”. The Obama administration’s economic stimulus policy, which promotes the retention and creation of jobs in both sectors, public and private, favors little men (wage earners); the Fortuño administration’s austerity policy (to cut government spending) increases unemployment in both sectors, which impacts the poorest segments of the Puerto Rican population (little men and women) while it spares the wealthiest from having to repay the public debt through tax increases. Yes, the Fortuño administration’s economic policies always benefit big men and economic interests.59
William Tells is not alone. Sergio Marxuach60, director of policy development at the locally-based Center for the New Economy, said the “study—released Friday [September 25, 2009] by the Commonwealth Employees Administration, or AEELA, which funded the report—found that 14 states had a greater proportion of public workers compared to the population of Puerto Rico [Gov. Fortuño claims that the number of public employees here constitute 29.6 percent of totaled salaried employment, the highest in the United States] ‘This confirms our finding in the  Brookings Institute [sic] [The Brookings Institution, a nonprofit, nonpartisan public policy think tank, was formerly known as the Institute for Government Research] Report that the problem of Puerto Rico is not so much that the government is big, but that the private sector is too small,’ Marxuach said. The Brookings [Institution]/Center for the New Economy [a Puerto Rico-based think tank] study found a downward trend in the proportion of public workers since 1980 due to the privatization of state-owned enterprises…”61
Workers Federation leader José Rodríguez Baez says: “the top priority of labor on the island should be the development of strategies and mechanisms to change the vision of those now leading government and ‘whose interests respond to those of the private investors and not the workers.’” Juan Eliza, the President of the General Workers Union acknowledges that some union leaders and members answer “more to their [political] party than to their labor syndicate. They have not been very active lately [because they were] confident that this situation would not affect them because they are [PNP] party members. But now they have admitted that we have been right since the beginning…”62
Jeff Sharlet summed up our frustrations: “Those of us who find ourselves suddenly (or so it seems) at the dried-out margins keep telling ourselves that this country is still a democracy, and that democracy still means ‘moderation,’ private religion and a public square safe for ‘civil society.’ The fundamentalist Christ is not… the real Christ. He’s an imposter… recently perpetrated on the good-hearted but gullible American [and Puerto Rican] masses by cynical men, manipulators, profiteers, a cabal of televangelists… Fundamentalism is writing us [unbelievers and religious moderates] out of history… [We] must continue to revisit the history of American [and Puerto Rican] fundamentalism—which is to say, we must reconsider the story we speak of when we say ‘America [and Puerto Rico].’63
The Star published Fundamentalists’ influence disproportionate in its February 7, 2008 Viewpoint, p. 52. I brought the pitfalls of Fundamentalism to its readers’ attention: “Fundamentalism breeds hate, divisiveness and discord. Suicide bombings, 9/11’s, crusades, massacres, inquisitions, honor killings, ethnic (read: religious) cleansings, fleecing the gullible, sexism and most other suffered injustices have their roots in religious fundamentalism.”
Former President Bill Clinton often stresses that common people can make a huge difference. “Ordinary citizens, not in government, not running big companies, if they stand together, have the chance to do more than ever before.”64
Again, to recap: Populist fundamentalism publicly exacts an untenable leap-of-faith. Its thunderous creationist (Bible-based) message and salvation promised on-the-cheap accommodate all possibilities; however, it is void of any congruous explanation. Many evils, for example, miscegenation, slavery, torture, domestic spying, bigotry, gay bashing and the Holocaust, which were incidentally mentioned in Worldly Power: Family Style. Part One: The Prayer Group Movement, have in the past been and some in the present continue to be justified by evangelists and right-wing Christian fundamentalist politicians invoking biblical/religious mandates. The flip side, elite fundamentalism, is all about stealth, wealth, power [economic and military], prestige and empire. Its mission is to maintain the status quo for key men. In the next edition of Papel Mag, William Tells will delve deeper into elite fundamentalism when Worldly Power: Family Style. Part Two: The National Prayer Breakfast and Its Offshoots is featured.
1 Faith-Based Initiatives.
2 The Other FBI was published in Papel Mag’s fall issue. My contributions appear in “William Tells” under the Queritics Section; Click this section. When you see the William Tells’ hang-down, click again. Enjoy!
3 Jefferson's Letter to the Danbury Baptists [The Final Letter, as Sent on January 1, 1802]. (June 1998). The Library of Congress. Retrieved October 8, 2009, from………… http://www.loc.gov/loc/lcib/9806/danpre.html
4 Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
5 No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. There shall be complete separation of church and state.
6 This moniker was concocted by “a seventy-year old self-described invisible network of followers of Christ in government, business, and the military… [that] call themselves the Family, or the Fellowship, and they consider themselves a core of men responsible for changing the world.” Sharlet, Jeff. The Family The Secret Fundamentalism at the Heart of American Power, Harper Perennial (2009), p. 3.
7 “Donald C. Stone, director of administration for the Marshall Plan… one of the many authors of Europe’s reconstruction who never made headlines… had come to believe that the West stood for Christ-like perfection while communism was ‘hate’ incarnate. Stone’s ambition for the Marshall Plan was to conform the Western bloc ‘politically, economically, psychologically, and spiritually, ‘to a ‘global offensive’ of ideas. The idea, for Stone, was God. ‘My main use,’ he told Abram, ‘is to try to get the Christian Spirit into [the Marshall Plan]. I have worked for that constantly. It is vital.” Ibid. The Family, p. 151.
8 “The Taft-Hartley Act, known by even conservative unions as ‘the slave labor law’ for the ends to which it went to roll back the New Deal and replace strikes with employer-controlled ‘conciliation,’ a hallmark of Abram’s vision for ‘industrial peace.’ The teachings for the ‘Nazarene’ for such politicians amounted to deregulation, the removal of government intervention from matters they thought firmly taken in hand by Jesus and His chosen representatives. They were not libertarians; they were authoritarians. ‘Our people as a whole have become the most highly organized in the world,’ declared Abram’s Better Way pamphlet. All the vital activities of industry, commerce, and government are carried on by corporations and other formal organizations. Such bodies are continually growing in size, and hence the top leadership is continually growing in power and influence. We have entered into an era when the masses of the people are dependent upon a rapidly diminishing number of leaders for the determination of their pattern of life and the definition of their ultimate goals. It is the age of minority control.”
Ibid. The Family, pp. 142-43.
9 “Cold War [was] the conflict between the Communist nations led by the Soviet Union and the democratic nations led by the United States. It [was] fought by all means—propaganda, economic war, diplomatic haggling and occasional military clashes. It [was] fought in all places—in neutral states, in newly independent nations in Africa, Asia and even in outer space. The historians have so far not reached any agreement on the time in which the Cold War began. It is, however, quite safe to say that since 1947 when President Truman of the United States declared an anti-communist policy, the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union ha[d] begun… There were deep-rooted ideological, economic and political differences between the United States and the Soviet Union before the Second World War. These differences were intensified as a result of their mutual suspicions immediately after the Second World War… The United States and the Soviet Union represent[ed] two opposing systems of government. In the United States, the government is elected by free elections. The people can form political parties to voice their political opinions. They also possess the right of assembly, of speech and of the press. In the Soviet Union, the government [was] formed by the Communist Party. The people [did] not have the right to form their own political parties. They [did] not enjoy the right of assembly, of speech and of the press… The United States wanted to encourage free trade throughout the world. The Soviet Union wanted to shield off her own sphere from international commerce. Russia feared that trade with the West would involve the risk of Russia being opened to western influences which would have eroded the strength of the totalitarian regime. These differences led to much ill feeling between the United States and the Soviet Union… After the Second World War, with the decline of Europe, power was largely shared between the Soviet Union and the United States. As one wanted to dominate the other, conflicts were inevitable.” The Corner of the World. Cold War 1945-1960. HW Poon, 1979. Adapted by TK Chung. Retrieved September 28. 2009, from http://www.thecorner.org/hist/europe/coldwar.htm
10 “Throughout the 1980s, the Soviet Union fought an increasingly frustrating war in Afghanistan. At the same time, the Soviet economy faced the continuously escalating costs of the arms race. Dissent at home grew while the stagnant economy faltered under the combined burden. Attempted reforms at home left the Soviet Union unwilling to rebuff challenges to its control in Eastern Europe. During 1989 and 1990, the Berlin Wall came down, borders opened, and free elections ousted Communist regimes everywhere in eastern Europe. In late 1991 the Soviet Union itself dissolved into its component republics. With stunning speed, the Iron Curtain was lifted and the Cold War came to an end.” “Cold War Timeline: National Museum of Natural History (2000). The End of the Cold War. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from………………………………………….. http://americanhistory.si.edu/subs/history/timeline/end/index.html
11 Abraham Vereide founded the prayer group movement in Seattle in 1935. He incorporated it in the state of Illinois in 1943 as the National Committee for Christian Leadership (NCCL) to provide minimal coordination for the prayer group movement. In 1944, the name was changed to International Christian Leadership (ICL), and in 1972, to the Fellowship Foundation, Inc. “Records of the Fellowship Foundation – Collection 459” [Historical Background]. (2007, November 7). Billy Graham Center Archives, Wheaton College, Retrieved September 23, 2009, from………………………………….. http://www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/GUIDES/459.htm#3.
12 Ibid. The Family, p. 91.
13 More often than not he spoke-in-code, for instance: “welfare queens” (or “bums”).
14 The so-called era of big government started with President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s [the 32d/1933-45 (four terms)] New Deal institutions (whose central piece of legislation was the Social Security Act) that created and sustained a middle-class society.
15 He believed that “government was the problem”; therefore, he supported block grants, privatization and deregulation to reduce the size of government.
16 President Lyndon Baines Johnson’s [the 36th/1963-69 (who served the remainder of President John F. Kennedy’s term and one on his own right)] Great Society, his legislative agenda of national reform, created a safety-net (Medicaid, Medicare and welfare) and advanced human rights (the Voting Rights Act and the Civil Rights Act).
17 He championed “workfare” as Governor of California, cut back AFDC [Aid to Families with Dependant Children] and other targeted poverty programs, and turned his back on the homeless [whom he believed choose to be living in the streets].
18 He supported amending the Constitution to prohibit any and all abortions with the exception of those that are necessary to save the mother’s life.
19 For example, he opposed the Voting Rights Act (1964), Civil Rights Act (1965) and in 1984 addressed the nation in support of restituting prayer in public schools.
20 He was the first movement conservative to be elected President. What’s a movement conservative? It “is ultimately about rolling back policies that hurt a narrow, wealthy elite, it fundamentally antidemocratic… Movement conservatism has gone from fringe status to a central role in American politics because it has proved itself able to win elections.” Krugman, Paul. The Conscience of a Liberal, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. [a Norton paperback] (2009), p. 11.
21 In 1980 Ronald Reagan insensitively endorsed "states' rights" at the Neshoba County Fair in Mississippi, close to the site of the ruthless 1964 murder of three civil rights workers. Reagan's election to the presidency that year hinged on bringing into the GOP fold several new groups—including the rank and file of white Southerners, the bulk of whom, for generations after the Civil War, refused to vote Republican on a national ballot. His endorsement, which was all about race and each state’s sovereign right to control its laws, worked. Thereafter, the South, once "solidly" Democratic, has been almost solidly Republican. David Greenberg. Slate. “Dog-Whistling-Dixie” (November 20, 2007). Retrieved October 13, 2009, from http://www.slate.com/id/2178379.
22 Ibid. The Family, p. 43.
23 Dominionism is a broad movement that extends to most of the Christian right. They share the common belief that any and all spheres of public and private life should be governed exclusively by the inerrant mandates of God as set forth in the Bible, to the exclusion of civil law, a fundamentalist worldview that has been denominated theonomy.
24 Ibid. The Family, p. 19.
25 The Preamble to the Constitution of the IWW reads: “The working class and the employing class have nothing in common. There can be no peace so long as hunger and want are found among millions of the working people and the few, who make up the employing class, have all the good things of life. Between these two classes a struggle must go on until the workers of the world organize as a class, take possession of the means of production, abolish the wage system, and live in harmony with the Earth. We find that the centering of the management of industries into fewer and fewer hands makes the trade unions unable to cope with the ever growing power of the employing class. The trade unions foster a state of affairs which allows one set of workers to be pitted against another set of workers in the same industry, thereby helping defeat one another in wage wars. Moreover, the trade unions aid the employing class to mislead the workers into the belief that the working class have [sic] interests in common with their employers. These conditions can be changed and the interest of the working class upheld only by an organization formed in such a way that all its members in any one industry, or in all industries if necessary, cease work whenever a strike or lockout is on in any department thereof, thus making an injury to one an injury to all. Instead of the conservative motto, "A fair day's wage for a fair day's work," we must inscribe on our banner the revolutionary watchword, "Abolition of the wage system." It is the historic mission of the working class to do away with capitalism. The army of production must be organized, not only for everyday struggle with capitalists, but also to carry on production when capitalism shall have been overthrown. By organizing industrially we are forming the structure of the new society within the shell of the old.” IWW.org. Retrieved September 26, 2009, from http://www.iww.org/culture/official/preamble.shtml
26 Ibid. The Family, pp. 139-40.
27 The Free Republic (June 16, 2005). Bush [and Fortuño] Attends Hispanic Prayer Breakfast. Retrieved October 12, 2009, from http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1424286/posts
28 “The Dixiecrats were members of the States' Rights Democratic Party, which splintered from the Democratic Party in 1948. The faction consisted of malcontented southern delegates to the Democratic Party who protested the insertion of a civil rights plank in the party platform and U.S. president Harry S. Truman's advocacy of that plank. Before the convention southern delegates were dismayed by Truman's 1948 executive order to desegregate the armed forces… The Dixiecrats chose South Carolina's governor, Strom Thurmond, for president… On election day 1948, the Dixiecrats won Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina but failed to win any state in which Thurmond appeared as a third-party candidate… The Deep South states boasted the largest black populations, and white voters in those states were the most determined to preserve racial segregation and black disenfranchisement, and thus were more likely to vote for the Dixiecrat ticket… Although the Dixiecrats immediately dissolved after the 1948 election, their impact lasted much longer… Ultimately, the Dixiecrat movement paved the way for the rise of the modern Republican Party in the South. Many former Dixiecrat supporters eventually became Republicans, as was highlighted by Strom Thurmond's conversion in the 1960s.” The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Dixiecrats.(July 7, 2004). Retrieved September 26, 2009, from……………………………....……………..
29“The affair between Strom Thurmond and Carrie Butler [his family’s Black housekeeper] profoundly illustrates the contradictory world into which they were born, a world where not only was it illegal for Blacks and Whites to intermarry, but where justice was never administered evenhandedly. Although Mr. Thurmond did break his state’s laws against miscegenation, the sexual union was evidently consensual – if one may ever regard sex in a situation so pregnant with inequities as consensual. Therefore Thurmond [then 22 years of age] did not commit rape under the laws of South Carolina at the time, because Miss Butler [then 16 years of age] was over the age of fourteen, the statutory age of consent in 1925. And once the pregnancy was known, had both Thurmond and Butler been White, probably Thurmond would have married her. Had Thurmond been Black and Butler White, Thurmond would probably have been summarily executed by lynching. But in the South of the early twentieth century, Miss Butler had few legal rights against a White person, especially the son of a judge. It is also profoundly ironic that a man with an African-American daughter [After Thurmond’s death, Essie Mae Washington-Williams publicly revealed that she was his daughter on December 14, 2003; thereafter the Thurmond family publicly acknowledged her parentage.] should have been the greatest Senatorial defender of segregation—he set the Senate’s filibuster record by speaking for twenty-four hours and eighteen minutes in a futile attempt to block the 1957 Civil Rights Act from becoming the law of the land—and the only presidential candidate of the Dixiecrat Party. It underscores that the real horror behind the anti-miscegenation laws was never simply about sex between the races. It was about keeping Black men away from White women. White men have had sex with Black women from the earliest days of slavery, sometimes raping them with impunity.” Vincent, Robert (Bob), Sr. Strom Thurmond’s Daughter. Excerpt taken from: Reflections on the benefits and curse of hypocrisy in a civil society. Written on December 22, 2003, Revised on December 13, 2004. Retrieved on September 27, 2009, from http://www.rbvincent.com/std.htm
30“John Stennis, one of twentieth century America's most admired white supremacists, whose legacy as a titan of the appropriations process is celebrated through such landmarks as the USS John C. Stennis [It is one of the Nimitz-class super-aircraft carriers, a line that has virtually the same amenities as any city in the United States with a comparable population; for example, it has a daily newspaper, radio and television stations, fire department, library, hospital, general store, laundry, two barbershops and even a post office with its own zip code.]… and the John C. Stennis Space Center [located in Hancock County, Mississippi, at the Mississippi/Louisiana border, is NASA's largest rocket engine test facility]... Stennis was, early in his career, ahead of his time as an advocate of torture: As a prosecutor, he sought the conviction and execution of three black men whose murder confessions had been extracted by torture. The convictions were overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court in the landmark case of Brown v. Mississippi (1936) that banned the use of evidence obtained by torture. The transcript of the trial indicates Stennis was fully aware of the methods of interrogation, including flogging, used to gain confessions… Having gained a reputation in the 1930s as the kind of guy who didn't mind torturing confessions out of black defendants…, Stennis … signed the Southern Manifesto in support of school segregation, opposed the civil rights legislation of the 1950s, opposed the Civil Rights Act, opposed the Voting Rights Act, and broke with the Democratic Party in 1964 to support Barry Goldwater... ”Yglesias, Mathew. The Atlantic.com. The White Supremacist Caucus (2007, November 26). Retrieved September 27, 2009, from………………………………………………………………….. http://matthewyglesias.theatlantic.com/archives/2007/11/the_white_supremacist_caucus.php
31 Ibid. The Family, pp. 89—91
32 Etymology: Gr theokratia: see theos, god & kratia, rule. Webster’s New World College Dictionary. Wiley Publishing, Inc. (2005). Retrieved September 28, 2009, from http://www.yourdictionary.com/theocracy
33 Until October 7, 1821 Charles (Grandison) Finney “had little use for and less belief in the Lord. Long set in the pride of his own intellect, he was past the usual age of such inquiries… he became a schoolteacher and now he was a lawyer, and many believed that soon he’d be a politician, perhaps a senator one day. If that was to come to pass, he decided, he’d better get his inner life in order… Then, one day, he bought a Bible… Now, it became a secret companion… But no one could convert Finney. ‘I had not much regard for opinions of others,’ he’d confessed. As he sought God from Sunday night through Monday and Tuesday. It seemed his heart grew harder… On Tuesday night, terror struck him. He thought he would die… There was only one sentence among his thoughts… [that] seemed to come from elsewhere… Will. You. Accept. It. Now. Today? … he’d later say, Jesus Christ himself stood in the office, ‘face to face,’ awaiting his deposition. Into the darkness came then the Holy Spirit. ‘Like a wave of electricity, going through and through me. Indeed it seemed to come in waves, and waves of liquid love.’ Finney roared out loud, his shame dissolved in his fear and ecstasy… the idea-that-is-not-an-idea that he would take as his text for what would become the greatest revival…: before God, you are nothing… Finney’s was the faith of the industrial age… American Christendom was changing fast. Finney’s epiphany contained in it the summation of two developing ideas of the times, ideas that would vastly expand Christ’s jurisdiction over America in the minds of believers: the radical notion that to perceive the divine is to accept divine authority, without question; and the mechanistic understanding of faith as instantaneous for all who want it. Sign here, and you’re a soldier in the army of God, ready for battle.” Ibid. The Family, pp. 74-78.
34 “Abram perfected a feel-good fundamentalism that was every bit as militant and aggressive as today’s populist front [American fundamentalism in the twenty-first century… has two great strands—the populist, pulpit pounding tradition of its masses and the mannered evasions of its elite—[that] are coming together, intertwining to become the mutant DNA of men such as [Senator] Sam Brownback [R-KS], the next generation of spiritual warriors.] but incapable of uttering a harsh word. It was country club fundamentalism, for men who believed in their own goodness and proved it to themselves and to each other by commending Christ and… following His example. They followed the law of kindergarten: if you have nothing nice to say about someone, say nothing at all. Or put in terms of abstraction…: One might talk about the ‘Red Menace’, but good Christians did not discuss what they deemed Roosevelt’s communistic tendencies: One might bemoan moral decay, but it would not do to mention the name of a fellow businessman [or a congressman (for a current example, Sen. John Ensign (R-NV), or a governor (for an even more recent example, Gov. Mark Sanford (R-SC)] who kept ladies on the side…” Ibid. The Family, pp. 98-9, 262.
35 Ibid. The Family, pp. 139--40.
36 “Not only was Vereide pro-Hitler, he was the only Norwegian of note, who was not officially a Nazi, who never condemned Norwegian Nazi leader Vidkun Quisling, a… traitor and who was executed in 1945. Vereide and Quisling were almost the same age… [and] both shared a link with the clergy, Vereide was a Methodist minister and Quisling was the son of a Lutheran minister. The Norwegian link to the Fellowship continues to this day… Another pro-Nazi Christian fundamentalist group that arose in the pre-Second World War years was the Moral Rearmament Movement [a/k/a Buchmanism that, after WWII, had evolved into an umbrella organization for anyone of any faith who hated Bolshevism]. Its leader was Frank Buchman, a Lutheran minister from Philadelphia. Buchman was a pacifist, but not just any pacifist. He and his colleagues in the United States, Britain, Norway, and South Africa reasoned that war could be avoided if the world would just accept the rise of Hitler and National Socialism and concentrate on stamping out Communism and Socialism. Buchman coordinated his activities with Vereide and his Prayer Breakfast Movement, which, by 1940, had spread its anti-left manifesto and agenda throughout the Pacific Northwest. Buchman was effusive in his praise for Hitler. He was quoted by William A. H. Birnie of the New York World Telegram, ‘I thank Heaven for a man like Adolf Hitler, who built a front line of defense against the anti-Christ of Communism.’” Wayne Madsen. EXPOSÉ: THE “CHRISTIAN” MAFIA (Where Those Who Now Run the U.S. Government Came From and Where They Are Taking Us). Retrieved September 29, 2009, from http://www.insider-magazine.com/ChristianMafia.htm
37 Ibid. The Family, pp. 143.
38 Ibid. The Family, pp. 157-58.
39 Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Excerpts from: The Cost of Discipleship [that survived the Nazi book burnings]. Macmillan Publishing Co. (1963). [that Simon Schuster reprinted in paperback (1995).] Retrieved September 16, 2009, from………………………………….. http://www.liberalslikechrist.org/about/cheapgrace.html
40 “J. Edgar Hoover, the FBI chief, and his longtime companion, Clyde Tolson, were an ambiguously gay crime-fighting duo. Inseparable for 44 years, 1928-1972, the two top G-men vacationed together, often dressed similarly and continue their cohabitation even after death. They're buried alongside one another. Such facts have garnered Hoover and his handsome right-hand henchman praise as homosexual role models… Do Hoover and Tolson really belong on this list? No one has unearthed documentation that the two men had blazing hot sex together. Couldn't they have just been platonic pals? Evidence of physical intimacy is merely circumstantial, although suspicions about J. Edgar and Clyde ran rampant through Washington political circles. Richard Nixon's obscene comment upon hearing of Hoover's death ("Jesus Christ, that old cocksucker!") perhaps describes the opinion of inside observers, but no letters, photos, diaries or reliable witnesses can carnally tie the two men together. The best "proof" comes from the wife of Hoover's psychiatrist; she claims that Hoover admitted his homosexuality to her husband during a confidential session.” Hyena, Hank. Salon.com. (January 5, 2000). J. Edgar Hoover: Gay marriage role model? Retrieved September 28, 2009, from http://archive.salon.com/health/sex/urge/world/2000/01/05/hoover/
41 The Commonwealth of Puerto Rico also kept “dossiers, also know in Spanish as carpetas, [which] contain[ed] documents spanning a period from 1948 to March 1987, representing almost 40 years of illegal surveillance of the PIP [Puerto Rico Independence Party], its organizations and leaders by the police. The so-called carpeteo—the act of investigating a citizen because of his/her political affiliations, i.e. blacklisting—prevailed in Puerto Rico for over 40 years and was sanctioned by the Popular Democratic and New Progressive parties.” Juan A. Hernandez. Puerto Rico Daily Sun. September 10, 2009, p. 7.
42 “Unlike most of the famous American TV evangelists, the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association has always opened its accounting to public scrutiny. Graham has never been caught with a hooker [male (Rev. Ted Haggard) or female ( Rev. Jimmy Swaggart)], does not lead a lavish life [Rev. Jim and Tammy Bakker/PTL (Praise The Lord) Network], and he never built an amusement park for the Lord [The Bakker’s Heritage USA]. Graham's revival meetings were among the first public functions in the South where seating was not segregated by race. Graham's "big break" came in the 1940s, when publishing magnate William Randolph Hearst got wind of Graham's then-recurring theme that the Cold War was a showdown between good and evil, and that communists were Satan-worshippers. ‘Either communism must die or Christianity must die,’ Graham famously preached, and Hearst sent a memo to all of his papers' editors, ordering them to "puff Graham". Prior to that, Graham had been just another traveling evangelist, holding meetings in half-empty tents. After that and for the rest of his life, he has been America's most prominent [non-covert] Christian leader. At the height of the blacklists and American red scare of the 1950s, Graham said of his friend, Senator Joseph McCarthy [Republican Senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957) who used communism to promote himself/McCarthyism], ‘While nobody likes a watchdog, and for that reason many investigation committees are unpopular, I thank God for men who, in the face of public denouncement and ridicule, go loyally on in their work of exposing the pinks [feminists], the lavenders [gays], and the reds [communists] who have sought refuge beneath the wings of the American eagle and from that vantage point try in every subtle, undercover way to bring comfort, aid and help to the greatest enemy we have ever known—communism.’ “NNDB tracking the entire world. Billy Graham. Soylent Communications (2009). Retrieved September 29, 2009, from…………………………………………….. http://www.nndb.com/people/561/000022495/
43 Ibid. The Family, pp. 183-184.
44 Progressives had hoped that President Obama and the robust Democratic majority in Congress would initiate structural changes promised while campaigning and/or outlined in its party platform; instead they promoted a centrist change-of-heart agenda from day one. In The Other FBI, some disappointments were highlighted: (1) The Democratic Senate took single-payer health care off the table before negotiating health reform with the GOP minority; (2) DDAT (Don’t Ask Don’t Tell) and the federal DOMA (Defense of Marriage Act) have not been repealed or attenuated; (3) The Bush administration’s White House Office of Faith Based Initiatives was not eliminated (with its funding transferred to government social service agencies); in place thereof it was revamped as the White House’s Office of Faith Based & Neighborhood Partnerships (whose purported focus is no longer blatant evangelism, imposition of religious dogma and rampant employment discrimination). Now, as a substitute for direct higher-level talks to end the trade embargo and formalize diplomatic relations between Cuba and the U.S., Bisa Williams, the U.S. deputy secretary of state for Western Hemisphere, “held unannounced, high level talks in Havana with the Cuban government [Deputy Foreign Minister Dagoberto Rodriguez]… raising hopes of a thaw in long-icy relations [since Cuban leader Fidel Castro marched into Havana on New Year’s Day 1959]… [including] the possibility of restarting direct mail service between the countries, suspended since 1963.” Puerto Rico Daily Sun. September 30, 2009, p.11.
45 Boxes 176-266 contain international correspondence that “are arranged by country or region and are concerned largely with either contacts between members of the prayer breakfast fellowship in Washington and those leaders of the indigenous movement in a particular country or with trips to various Christian communities or individuals in a particular country or with suggested people of a particular country to invite to the National Prayer Breakfast in Washington or some similar event or with the activities of the prayer fellowships of a particular country. Up until 1970, there is a good deal of information relating to the work of the International Council of Christian Leadership in various folders… The Puerto Rico and Virgin Island files are here, as are files on Latin America, South America, the Middle East, South Pacific, West Africa, Southwest Africa and similar regions…” [emphasis mine] Ibid. Billy Graham Center Archives, htm#701.
46 Ibid. Billy Graham Center Archives, htm##1-3.
47 Ibid, Billy Graham Center Archives, htm#2.
48 Sharlet, J. (March 2003). Jesus plus nothing: Undercover among America’s secret theocrats. Harper’s Magazine, 1-24. Retrieved September 16, 2009, from http://www.harpers.org/archive/2003/03/007925?pg=1
49 Michelle Goldberg, Kingdom Coming, (W.W. Norton & Company paperback (2007), pp.40.
50 “Gov. Fortuño… [and his wife] accompanie[d] Rev. Jorge Raschke at the “Clamor de Díos” activity at the Capitol on Monday [September 7, 2009]. The Fortuño administration is expanding its office and adding to the public payroll, official employment and budget figures indicate.” [caption below the photo of this thunderously pious trio] “While the OMB (Office of Management and Budget Web site) attributes the increase in the size of the Governor’s Office to the integration of La Fortaleza’s [the official residence of the governor of Puerto Rico] chief of staff and secretary of public affairs offices, the latter was actually created in January and the Gov. appointed Alejandro Figueroa to head it. Figueroa was one of the two aides the governor banned from handling Health Reform issues after reports that they were lobbying in favor of certain insurance companies in the bid for program contracts [Mini-Ouch! Why a mere slap on the wrist for closed-door deal-making? He deserved dismissal;—subsequently, on October 2, 2009, he resigned according to the Associated Press’ Rebecca Banuchi’s article that appeared on page 4 of the October 6, 2009 edition of the Puerto Rico Daily Sun; the underlying investigation concerning undue pressure that he placed on ASES (The Health Insurance Administration) so Health Reform contracts would be awarded to COSVI (Life Insurance Cooperative of Puerto Rico) continues.] Also within the Governor’s Office is the newly created Office of Community Initiatives and Faith-based Organizations, headed by the Rev. Aníbal Heredia, who said in July that his agency was opening offices throughout the island [Yep—spreading like the plague!]. Fortuño had said earlier this year that La Fortaleza would be the first to implement austerity measures…” Puerto Rico Daily Sun’s (brackets mine) José Alvarado Vega. Puerto Rico Daily Sun. September 8, 2009, p. 5.
51 Puerto Rico Daily Sun. September 30, 2009, p. 8.
52 Gloria Rivera Centeno, the president of the School of Social Workers, recently “recalled when the organization evaluated Gov. Fortuño’s campaign platform in October 2008 and highlighted the frequent use of authoritarian verbs to implement policies without the participation of the affected groups.” Juan A. Hernández. Puerto Rico Daily Sun. October 10, 2009, p. 5.
53 Manuel Ernesto Rivera (Associated Press). Puerto Rico Daily Sun. October 13, 2009, p.5.
54 The Puerto Rico Association of Economists was not invited. Its President Martha Quiñones had come out earlier against the dismissal of public employees. She called it bad policy especially at this time of recession. Puerto Rico Daily Sun. October 1, 2009, p.4.
55 José Alvarado Vega. Puerto Rico Daily Sun. September 8, 2009, p.7.
56 Manuel Ernesto Rivera (Associated Press). Puerto Rico Daily Sun. October 13, 2009, p.5.
57 Eva Llorens Velez. Puerto Rico Daily Sun. October 1, 2009, p. 5.
58 Ibid. The Family, pp. 98-100, 102-3.
59 Fortuño ran on a “no layoffs” platform. After his landslide victory he dismissed nearly 17,000 public workers to solve the government’s fiscal crisis and improve the economy. Albeit he said he has “no doubt that the actions… taken to restore our fiscal situation will improve the economy… Nevertheless, Fortuño ended his message calling on God’s will ‘so it will be so.’” Juan A. Hernández. Puerto Rico Daily Sun. September 26, 2009, p.5.
60 In his Commentary entitled “Social tolerance and economic growth”, Mr. Marxuach said: “In 2005, Washington state considered enacting a bill to ban discrimination against gays and lesbians. Microsoft, one of the largest employers in that state [who had recently announced a significant expansion of its operations in Puerto Rico], caved-in to pressure from conservative groups and initially decided to support the measure. However, when faced with an intense backlash from his own employees, Bill Gates and CEO Steve Balmer… were forced to publicly reiterate the company’s support for gay rights… You need… highly creative people such as scientists, engineers, computer programmers, designers, architects and other knowledge-based professionals to think about… new ideas. Professor Richard Clark [in his book, The Rise of the Creative Class (Basic Books, 2004) collectively calls these people the “Creative Class.”… Members of the Creative Class… prefer to live in areas with high degree of openness and tolerance.” The San Juan Star. March 18, 2008, p. 18.
61 Puerto Rico Daily Sun. September 28, 2009, p. P3.
62 Juan A. Hernández. Puerto Daily Sun. September 27, 2009, p. P3.
63 Ibid. The Family, pp. 338-9, 369.
64 Johnstone, Bruce. Saskatchewan News Network; Regina Leader-Post (September 9, 2009). The StarPhoenix. Ordinary citizens hold power: Clinton. Retrieved October 3, 2009, from………………………………………………………………………………….. http://www.thestarphoenix.com/technology/Ordinary+citizens+hold+power+Clinton/1974417/story.html